Annotated Sources

Baddour D. 2015. Feds Intervene in to De-smog Big Bend. Chron News. Retrieved from:

Dylan Baddour summarizes the main problem at Big Bend National Park, the smog. The main argument in this article is on what to do and what is trying to be done about the smog. The biggest problem with the smog is the lack of view, because it doesn’t cause health problems or cause a threat to health. The EPA proposed a plan to cut over 230,00 tons of acidic gas from Texas skies, and didn’t agree to the plan by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality planned to provide Big Bend with normal visibility by 2155. He then summarized the EPA’s plans and how it could affect Big Bend National Park. The goal of this source is to provide the reader with why the Big Bend National Park hasn’t been “cured.” The ongoing battle at the federal level causes controversy on how exactly the problem should be fixed, as well as if it should even be fixed. This source will be useful for my paper, due to the information it provides on different organizations, and what they’re trying to pass. Something needs to be done with the air at this park before it’s too late. This source contradicts with some of my other sources, because it suggests that the smog doesn’t cause any harmful side effects.


Hopkins JS. 2015. In Texas, Environmental Officials Align With Polluters. Danger in the Air. National Geographic. Retrieved from:

This article was published by Jamie Hopkins, and summarized the environmental officials residing in Texas, as well as how they align with polluters. She provides information about the smog that makes up air pollution. The data about emissions in the air is alarming, and Texas remains at the top for pollutants. After providing data on emissions in different states and comparisons, she breaks down the certain pollutants found in Texas, and how they may cause unsafe conditions. The goal of this source is to provide the reader with information on air pollution problems in Texas. The pollutants have a potential harmful effect on individuals, which makes questions arise when thinking of Big Bend National Park. This source will be useful for my paper, because the information and data found on Texas smog can be related to the smog found at Big Bend National Park. The break down of different pollutants and emissions will help to support my paper on why it could potentially be dangerous at unsafe levels of consumption.


States News Service. 2015. EPA Moves To Protect Big Bend National Park and Other Wild Areas from Air Pollution. Newswire. Retrieved from:

The States News Service provided a short article on the EPA. This article summarizes the move that EPA is making to protect Big Bend National Park from air pollution. The EPA plans to make all these changes within 3 to 5 year deadlines to clean up the pollution. This article also discusses the rejection by the EPA to The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality, and the plan they put forth, basically resembling a ”get nothing done” stimulation. It then discusses that people who reside close to plants do have health affects, and to what extent, as well as the different places the smog effects. The goal of this source is to discuss the plans that EPA has, as well as why their plans are needed in the state of Texas. The writer provided a source of bias towards the EPA, and backs the EPA and their decisions. This source will be useful for my writing, because it provides major steps that the EPA is taking towards a cleaner environment in Texas. Not only does the pollution affect Texas, but also it really springs danger to national parks and wilderness refugees, like Big Bend. This source would provide a resource for an advocate for the EPA and their beliefs, and potentially help create an argumentative edge.


Schichtel BA, Gebhart KA, Barna, MG, Malm WC. 2005. Association of Airmass Transport Patterns and Particulate Sulfur Concentrations at Big Bend National Park, Texas. Atmospheric Environment. 40:5, 992-1006. Retrieved from:

This article summarizes a study performed by The Big Bend Regional Aerosol and Visibility Observational. The study was done to determine and understand the haze found at Big Bend. The study found that high sulfur concentrations were associated with low level and low speed airmass transport from eastern US, Texas, and Northeastern Mexico. All three had high SO2 emissions that potentially could cause haze at Big Bend. The purpose of this article was to summarize a study that found an understanding as to why there is a haze at Big Bend National Park. The study is discussed in full and easily readable. This source will help me to make a point about the certain causes of smog/haze at Big Bend, and how the issue is ongoing. Since this article is old, I’ll be able to tie it into the newer articles, and link them together.


Gray JE, Theodorakos PM, Fey DL, Krabbenhoft, DP. 2015. Mercury Concentrations and Distribution in Soil, Water, Mine Wast Leachates, and Air in and Around Mines in the Big Bend Region, Texas, USA. Environmental Geochemistry and Health 37.1: 35-48. Retrieved from:

This scientific article summarizes the different concentrations of Mercury that are found in areas around Big Bend. It may be useful to me in my paper, as Mercury was proved in this article to be another contributing factor to the air problems, and may be potentially dangerous to citizens, and even wildlife.


National Parks Conservation Association. N.d. Mexico Preserves Foster Border Cooperation. National Parks. 65: 3-4, 12. Retrieved from:

This article summarizes the contribution Mexico is making by providing two new wildlife preserves adjacent to Big Bend. This could potentially be good or bad news, as the affect on wildlife would be unknown. Since Big Bend undergoes a lot of smog and believes some causes are from Mexico, it is risky for them to provide two new wildlife refugees potentially in harms way. This article will be useful to help discover Mexico’s contribution to the smog, and spin off on the topic of possible agreement, or even harmful events.













Below are two other possible sources that may be useful.!?&_suid=1456459598762021887719072419343

Kolbert and Conjecture

In Field Notes From a Catastrophe, Elizabeth Kolbert brought across her ideas in a coherent, interesting manner. After reading the first two chapters, I’ve realized she relies heavily on two main stasis questions throughout the chapters, conjecture and quality. Although she incorporates conjecture the most, I think she also adds definition, quality, and policy when discussing what climate change is, and the different policies that potentially try to lessen the effect.

In chapter one, Kolbert uses the main stasis question of conjecture. The chapter primarily focuses on the question of climate change, and if it actually exists. Contrary to many popular beliefs, Kolbert backed up her answer that climate change does exist by providing scientific evidence. She discussed the effect that CO2 has on the planet, and provided evidence that according to physics, the earth is thrown out of energy balance (1). To add more evidence to her stasis question, she went on to discuss the tragedy that the earth warming up has been putting on the glaciers. The glaciers are all shrinking, and Kolbert provided enough evidence to arrive at that conclusion. Not only did she provide scientific evidence, but she also went on to add in some personal experiences, and events going on in Alaska.

In chapter two, Kolbert also revolved the content over the stasis question of conjecture. Even after the evidence provided in chapter one, is global warming for sure a reality? She brought forth three scientists and discussed the use of their instruments and research studies. All three of the performed studies by the scientists gave rise to a whole new perspective for some people. Global warming is real, and you can’t argue with measurements proving it. Temperatures have been rising each year, causing the glaciers to melt, and the Earth to continue heating up (1). After backing up her stasis question on conjecture, Kolbert also provided answers with quality. Is global warming a good or bad thing? Is it right or wrong? She answers these questions by providing real life scenarios, where global warming is affecting the population in a bad manner. Therefore, global warming is not a good thing, and it is wrong.

In conclusion, Kolbert did an awesome job at providing the reader with an interesting read, as well as providing clear evidence to her belief. After reading this article, it’d be harder for someone to continue to believe that global warming doesn’t exist. Therefore, she poses a successful argument, and allows the reader to become more informed as an individual.




Kolbert E. 2006. Field Notes from a Catastrophe: Man, Nature, and Climate Change. Bloomsbury, New York.

Can Air Pollution Be Halted?

Throughout my childhood living in the great state of Texas, my family and I always went on mini camping vacations. One of my favorite places we went was Big Bend National Park, located in far Southwest Texas. Of course this visit was around 15 years ago, and whatever problems they had at the park back then have escalated enough to make top news still to this day. The air pollution was at an all time high back in early 2000s, but the problem is still alive today, and has not been “cured.” One of Texas’s last large wildlife preservation sites is in danger, and something has to be done. Although saving any National Park would be hard, Big Bend would be extremely hard due to the close tie of cause being Mexico.

In an alarming article by Joe Nick Patoski, “Big Bend, R.I.P.?” he discusses the root of the air pollution problem through his personal experience at the park, as well as some damage caused and why the park needs to be saved. Although the air pollution has been coming from all over, Joe suggests that one of the main sources of the pollution comes from Rio Escondido, Mexico (1). In Rio Escondido, there’s two, large coal-fired electrical plants. Although the electric plants in Mexico did not reach our standards, the US couldn’t fight them off due to the $300 million it would cost to bring their plants up to par with our United States standards (1). This causes an even bigger problem, because the pollution of the Texas National Park is out of control due to the pollution being caused from Mexico, leaving the United States with few options.

In Joe Patoski’s article, many commonplaces were found. One main commonplace was that: Electrical plants in Mexico are causing the air to become polluted at Big Bend National Park. A change needs to happen to save Big Bend National Park. The air pollution is putting the wildlife and residents in harms way. The above are a few listed commonplaces, but his article contains many more. Many of them can be found off the basis of those who are residents in Texas, and those concerned with the National Park.

The main founding assumptions of the author were that the electrical plants in Mexico are causing the decline of Big Bend National Park, and that the declining visibility as the air pollution gets worse is causing harm to Big Bend, and those potentially wanting to travel there. Another big point in his article was that although it would be hard to come to a conclusion of fixation, it could be do-able. Patoski strives to save Big Bend, and he has discussed everything he’s attempted to come to a conclusive project conclusion. He has been speaking out to administrators everywhere, and he does believe that many want this park saved, and that it can be saved, and that he’s not alone.

In conclusion, it is very saddening to know that one of my childhood favorite camping grounds is slowly declining due to air pollution. The article provided by Patoski gave me a greater insight on the problem, as well as understanding why it is a really hard fight to tackle. Hopefully Big Bend National Park hasn’t declined too much, and that it can somehow be saved!



Patoski, JN (1996) “Big Bend, R.I.P.?” Texas Monthly. Found Online at:

Unusual Therapy

It’s typical for a little girl growing up to look up to her mom and attempt to follow in her footsteps. After a long day at work, my mom would spend hours at the barn with the horses. Despite the long hours she spent outside, she would always return inside, rejuvenated. As a youngster, I insisted to know what was so special about the massive animals that stole her time away from me. Not only did I envy the horses for taking my mom’s time, I was also jealous of her connection to the horses. As a curious and willing child, my mom would throw me on the horses bareback. Little did she know at the time, but throwing me on horses bareback and beginning my connection with them has changed my life forever. I have learned through experience that building a relationship with such a captivating species is time-consuming, complex, and holds utmost value in my life.

My admiration for the hefty, dazzling animals began when I was only a few years old, and it has only continued to grow stronger since. Red, owned by my mom, is the most mischievous horse there ever was, but also, the most loving, adorable one. Building a relationship with Red provided many hardships, because the silly horse decided he wanted to attempt biting my toes every time I rode him. Meanwhile, Red gave off a complete sense of love on the ground, and even after a few toe nips, while riding. I couldn’t get mad at this horse, no matter the snarky decisions he made, something kept drawing me closer to him. After years of competing at a mediocre level, Red was ready for real competition. He took me everywhere, and we became so in tune together that we were hard to beat. The continual winning performances mixed with his unconditional love began my obsession with horses, as well as my ability to grow a relationship with them.

Although we had three different horses belonging to my siblings in our barn at the time I was competing on Red, my mom decided it was time for my very own first horse. We began the long journey hoping to find a sound, young horse started on barrels with heart bigger than the size of Texas. Of course I’m a huge fanatic over horses, and fell “in love” with each and every horse I met. There was something mom did not like about the first four horses we looked at, and mom urged to continue searching. It only took looking at approximately five different horses for me to decide which horse I absolutely could not resist, as well as one that my mom adored.

The morning was early in May, perfectly lit by the sun, with a slight breeze, maintaining a chill vibe. We pulled up at a mutual friend’s small ranch, and I spotted my forever-best friend, one horse that absolutely changed my life, Millie. I’m completely convinced that Millie knew from the moment I pulled up, that she found her best friend as well, and no one can tell me otherwise. Millie, the muscular, stunning, golden-brown horse stood with such an elegant long, shimmering, black mane and tail. But what caught my attention the most were her large, soulful brown eyes. They were eyes that anyone could look into and get lost, boasting pure love, innocence, and acceptance. I couldn’t take her home soon enough, I kept begging mom, ensuring her that I didn’t even need to ride her because I felt she was the one. As any sane mom would enforce, I had to ride the “green broke” three-year-old mare before any decision was made.

After I got on Millie, no one could get me off of her. However, “green broke” was an extreme understatement. She acted up at this young age, but her quirky misunderstandings drew me toward her. It took days of convincing and a test trial period with Millie before mom finally caved, falling in love with the golden mare herself. A week after we brought Millie home, I decided to take her on the trails with family and friends. When they display big gaudy signs reeking caution of wild animals displayed before a trail, it should never be taken lightly. Anyways, Millie graciously followed the herd, when her and Pepsi showed a strong interest in the trees. As Corey (Pepsi’s owner) and I cautiously walked towards the trees, fear struck Millie and Pepsi simultaneously. Unfortunately, a dark, wicked snake struck Millie just enough to alarm her. I immediately jumped off, screaming for help, as I didn’t know how bad it was, not worrying about the snake or it’s whereabouts. Millie was a nervous ball of fire, shaking and breathing heavily, as we exhausted every option for calming her nerves.

After the vet arrived giving news that Millie would be ok, my heart rate was finally able to slow to normal levels. Luckily, the snake wasn’t able to fully penetrate her ankle. She was given antibiotics and anti-inflammatories for the bite, and did not need anti-venom. Interestingly, the vet assumed that her “freak out” caused more damage than the snakebite did, leaving her with a sprained ankle. However, when Millie arrived back home she was on lockdown when I wasn’t around. I spent countless hours doctoring her swollen ankle with a loose bandage for the abrasion, worrying if she’d ever heal completely, and without knowing it building the strongest relationship I’ve ever had with an animal. The rehabilitation period after the snakebite was lengthy, and I didn’t dare miss any of my free time with her. Since I was losing time in the saddle, I began groundwork for months, putting in a countless stream of hours each day. While starting on the basics with Millie I was able to pinpoint one of her biggest fears, the water hose. I instantly linked the water hose fear to that of the slithering snake. I slowly worked to reduce her fear of hoses, building a strong understanding between the two of us. Overcoming her fear took teamwork, so each day I would undergo some sort of activity with the water hose. As Millie understood my reasoning and that it wasn’t going to hurt her, she accepted the hose to please me.

After passing a nerve-racking vet check, Millie was cleared to ride and work at a competitive level. By this time, her groundwork was amazing, and we had bonded so much that she’d wait for me at the pasture gaits nickering when I got home from school. She was my sane place, my confidant, the one I had such a strong base with that I believed in 100%. I told her everything from my newest gushy romance, to my last heart-wrenching breakup. She was there for all my up and downs, taking me on thrill rides when needed, as well as showing pure love on the ground. No matter how bad my day, spending time with this gorgeous mare changed my state of mind. I never left the barn unhappy, and that’s when it clicked. I now understood why my mom had such a love and passion for horses.

Training Millie was by no means a breeze, and I spent three years really finishing her out. She aimed to please me, and the hours upon hours I spent on her back she attentively learned, begging to begin competition. When Millie was approximately six, I couldn’t hold her back any longer. I decided to enter a few playdays and jackpots to see where she was. Everywhere I went Millie was clocking 2D times as a beginner barrel racer. Thrilled by the heart she gave during competition and her love for the sport, I knew she was a pro caliber barrel horse. With high hopes I began seasoning her. The training journey was abruptly halted when I was struck by a copperhead at my friend’s 16th birthday party. The sharp pain grew so intense that applying the slightest pressure to my ankle made me nauseous, and right then I knew how Millie felt. I was aching for her, as I was drowning in pain being rushed to the Emergency Room. Due to my leg swelling from my ankle to my thigh, they feared a worse case scenario of amputation if I was not treated quickly and efficiently. What I feared most was the separation from my horse and the time I would not be able to ride. After five long days in the hospital receiving anti-venom, I was finally able to be reunited with my best friend. Opposing mom’s plan, I’d slowly “crutch” my way out to the barn, catch Millie, and sit on the ground beside her as she grazed. While she grazed, I just be stood with her thinking of how amazing she was, and how building a relationship with her was growing me into a well-rounded responsible person. Not only was I learning responsibility, she was teaching me patience.

She felt my pain, and her eyes exhibited pity. My dreams were being crushed, as the Whitesboro rodeo approached, and Millie still needed training to compete at top level. But, as I found out 2 days later, that was the least of my worries. I received news that I lost my uncle to a long battle with Pancreatic Cancer, and my life suddenly crammed into a big blob of misunderstanding. Throughout it all, Millie sucked the sadness right out of me by never leaving my side and slowly resting her sweet head upon my shoulder giving me strength. The stability that she gave me no matter the circumstance is such a heartwarming feeling that can’t even begin to be explained, nor understood. The unconditional love she granted me with during this time had no comparison, and I worry what I would have done without Millie by my side.

On a relational ground, many people are actually unaware of the impact a horse can make on a person and their mental stability. Jessica Holbrook covers a heart-wrenching story about a young girl, Morgan, who has childhood-onset schizophrenia and struggles to find peace with the disease and her family. Before Morgan was introduced to horses, Schizophrenia was consuming her life (1). She wasn’t able to attend school; her mind was constantly distracted, she had major tantrums, and finding the correct medication for this mental disorder was tough (1). After initiation and therapy with horses, and finally her very own horse, Morgan drastically improved mentally and emotionally. Although she still struggles with Schizophrenia, she can now develop clear sentences, make eye contact, carry conversations, and maintain positive emotions (1). The drastic change of Morgan’s mental state suggests that the therapeutic use of horses can change lives, and develop such a strong, positive, re-assuring trust, love and acceptance.

In another equine therapy study, Mara Klecker followed an outstanding horse, Archie, and his effect on people in need. Archie has many scars of his own, making him easy to relate to (2). Due to Archie’s past, many people in the program feel that they can connect with him on an emotional level. One client, Sharon, underwent an extreme situation of rape while serving in the military (2). After the second session with Archie, Sharon began to break down. Archie gave her such a strong sense of hope, trust, and justice that Sharon discovered she could stand strong; she was not alone (2). She reported that equine therapy made her feel safe enough to seek justice (2). She was able to come forward and now resembles a strong woman with utmost gratitude for Archie and equine therapy (2). Sharon once lived life in constant fear, but equine therapy provided her with a reason to move forward.

Morgan and Sharon’s stories are just two of the hundreds of thousands in which a horse has changed a persons life. Horses have been known to soothe people with acute mental disorders, chronic mental disorders, a wide range of physical disorders, or even just a typical “bad day-need love.” The trust and judgmental free love a horse gives is one reason that a horse can be utilized in a wide variety of therapeutic treatments. Trust is such a simple word, but underneath it lays a complex meaning. Besides family, typically the thought of trusting someone is very frightening. My strong relationship with Millie allowed my full and honest trust with her. I know a thousand and one things can go wrong while on a horse, but trust is what keeps me going. After my ankle was healed from the snakebite, I entered Millie in the FRPS, not knowing our trust for each other was about to be tested.

It was a bright afternoon with the sun shining and a cool breeze passing through. I tacked Millie up while consistently pampering her. After tacking her up, we headed to the warm-up arena and slowly got her muscles ready to compete. Her prance boasted confidence, and her body language and eyes read extreme excitement.

“Chelle Davis, come running,” were the next words from the announcer.

As my heart began to race, I sent Millie straight down the alley way with my confidence. We ran to the right barrel first, and it was perfect. I pushed on with the reins forward and pulled her up for the second barrel, when suddenly the ride fell apart. Millie collapsed to her side straight to the ground, with my body lying underneath her. My mind immediately raced to the worst conclusion, as my leg was twisted in the stirrup beneath her and couldn’t move. As the first responders rushed towards Millie, she laid there completely still. All I wanted was for Millie to get up and move as a way to tell me she was ok. I could not lose my best friend.

“My horse! Is she ok? Please help her, I’m fine,” I squealed in a jumbled manner.
The lead EMT replied, “Honey, your horse is fine, she just lost her footing around the barrel. She’s waiting for us to safely unlatch your foot from the stirrup.”

As they slowly began to take off the saddle, they rubbed Millie’s coat telling her that everything was ok, and continually assuring her that she was a good girl. After they got the saddle off, they helped Millie up while cautiously trying to avoid my body. I jumped up immediately hugging Millie. In that moment of fear, she knew that I was in more danger if she got up, rather than her lying there waiting for help. In that moment, she saved my life. The trust she had for me was obvious as she lye on her side in fear, trusting the EMT’s and I to make everything okay. In accordance, the trust I had for her was displayed by trusting her not to step on me, and by letting her do the job she loves each and every day with me astride.

To this day, Millie is still my number one horse. I have a backup barrel horse, Tebow, who clocks right there with Millie, and whom I love dearly. However, when I can’t run both of them in a rodeo, Millie is the first option, as she’s been there through it all with me. Barrel racing is Millie’s passion, and she will forever give her all in each competition. It’s apparent that she loves rodeo, as the emotions she shows before competition relate to sheer excitement. Not only does she love her job, she loves her best friend leading the way. She’s won many rodeos, buckles, 2 saddles, and a great deal of money. She’s worth her weight in gold, and she’ll live with me the rest of her life.

There’s something special about having a relationship with horses, so special that the feeling can’t quite be explained. Horses change many lives in therapeutic situations by listening and being gentle giants for those in physical need. Although I don’t struggle with mental or physical disorders, horses have changed my life, and Millie has been my therapist throughout everything. The relationship I built with Millie through training and everyday life has formed me into a stronger, more loving and understanding person. The emotional effect she’s had on me is incomparable, as she understands me on a level that no one else does. The main role she’s played in my life is being my strength, always giving me an escape. She’s my rock through any type of hardship, and she’s my pride and joy each and every day. I plan to hit the rodeo road with Millie when I’m financially able to, and I believe that this horse can and will take me to the National Finals Rodeo. She keeps my hopes and dreams alive, and her heart for pleasing is one of the most inspiring aspects in my life. Her strength amazes me, and I am always reminded how blessed I am to compete on my best friend and push towards my goals with her. And for that reason, I am forever grateful for my relationship with Millie.

1. Holbrook, J. 2015. A Girl and Her Horse: Connection With Animal Changes a Life. The Canton Repository. Accessed online:
2. Klecker, M. 2014. Four-legged therapist making a difference. Lincoln Journal Star. Accessed online:

The Main Principle to Maintain Animal Welfare

After reading two additional animal entries by book or article, the assumption that both animal pieces have many similarities and differences between them has been confirmed. Temple Grandin, writer of “Animals Make us Humans,” and Vicki Hearne, writer of “Can an Ape Tell a Joke?” both bring across an interesting message providing details and explanations deriving differently. The content of each text has the greatest variation between the two pieces, although, there is some similarities in the structure of the pieces, as well as in the voice. Picking apart the similarities and differences between two different writing pieces of any kind can be tough, but by doing so, the reader can develop a deeper understanding of the different ways to approach writing and progress in their writing techniques, to enhance their own writing pieces.

Although there weren’t too many similarities between the different texts provided by Temple Grandin and Vicki Hearne, they both readily enforced the idea of animal welfare, which was a huge similarity. In both writings, each author contributed their time to ensuring the reader that animals must be treated correctly, giving each point on animal welfare in a different manner. Grandin focused a huge amount of his writing based on what it takes to make an animal happy, by describing the different stereotyping that goes along with each. Grandin later went on to suggest the use of enriched environments in order to provide the animal with better welfare. Similarly, Hearne makes a huge plunge for animal welfare in discussing the importance of how the apes are treated, and the mutual relationships they must have with a human, trainer specifically, in order to perform and act appropriately, all while maintaining “fair” grounds. Furthermore, both authors agreed on the basis of behavior being a huge determining factor contributing to the focus on animal welfare.

Both authors share the above views and similarities within the context, but there’s more similarities found behind the context, in the main structure of both writing pieces. The main structural similarity is the use of describing personal experiences incorporated with facts to provide a personal level, but then backing up the personal experiences with facts to ensure credibility. Both authors primarily give the feeling of an educational, or informational tone of voice, and approach the audience in a semi-formal manner.

Grandin and Hearne each focused on completely different aspects of animals, as well as the differential focus on the wild and domesticated animals, bringing forth many differences in the context. The main difference between these two pieces was Grandin’s use of the Blue Ribbon Emotion System. It’s an interesting system, which primarily focuses on seeking, rage, fear, panic, lust, care, and play, suggesting that the emotional state of an animal is an important contributing factor to their overall welfare, and happiness. Hearne primarily focused on the different apes and the intelligence an animal had to obtain in order to develop such a relationship with humans as shown in the multiple shows, or comical events put on by the animals with their trainer. Although both pieces focused on wild animals, Grandin focused more on the environmental and behavioral contributions (stereotypes) an animal has and how it affects them, while, Hearne focused on the intelligence a wild animal has, and the correct and fair treatment they deserve even at a higher level of performance, or use.

Grandin and Hearne both provided reader’s with an interesting, informational piece which brought forth strong thoughts, as well as an idea of how to structure and piece animal writings together. They both approached the writing in a different manner, and focused on wild animals, with different aspects and usages making the pieces very different. Both author’s brought their ideas and thoughts across in a successful manner, and seem to be reliable sources for the understanding of different species and the problems that they face in today’s society, as well as how far they’ve come from the past.

Animal Essays

When writing an English essay, there’s a multitude of different ways to go about the content in the paper, as well as the actual structure of the text. Since there’s no absolute “correct” way to write an essay of choice, grasping the reader’s attention plays a huge role in how successful the piece of writing may turn out to be. Gopnik and Kingsolver both wrote two incredible, very different essays “Dog Story” and “Making Peace,” respectively, with striking features, but the content, structure, and meaning contained both many similarities and differences that made them work as complete, successful writings.

Gopnik and Kingsolver both used many features in their writing’s, but the one that stuck out the most was comparisons by the use of metaphors and similes used by both, however, more so by Gopnik. Gopnik tied many of his comparisons within the text, making them harder to identify, but still making vivid images, while Kingsolver provided a few comparisons, using less metaphors and vivid images. The most vivid simile provided by Kingsolver appeared towards the end of the text describing thoughts on human societies, comparing to animal relations.

More features used in both essays included the audience, complexity of the text, as well as the precision in each written essay. Gopnik and Kingsolver both wrote in a conversational, informal manner, as any audience could appreciate the particular animal essays. While both texts contained complexity, Kingsolver’s essay seemed much more complex, with many more ideas, rather than just stories, flashbacks, and evidence of evolution. The feature of precision must be very important, as it will make a huge effect on whether or not the information is reliable or not in the reader’s mind. Both essays contained great precision, as they backed up any idea or theory with evidence from particular scientists, or another reliable source.

The features used by both authors allowed the story to elevate into a well-rounded, reliable, and visual essay. Each feature used actually enhanced the essays in different manners, while the important feature in both was that which maintained reliability. Interestingly, Gopnik and Kingsolver provided a huge difference in content, when Gopnik focused on a particular relationship with a dog, or domesticated animal, while Kingsolver focused on a relationship with wild animals. Through the great difference, evidence was provided that relationships do actually follow the same trend in a few ways, while they also differ. The features added together in a different manner created structure by which the author chose to create the story.

Although features in an essay are important, the structure of an essay must be plausible as well. When terms of structure arise, both stories by Gopnik and Kingsolver contained similarities, with a few differences between the two. The main similarity of both essays was the detailed incorporation of stories. Gopnik grabbed the reader’s attention right away, providing a flashback of him and his wife giving in, buying their daughter her very first puppy, with reluctance. He then went to discuss the thoughts he had before and after buying the puppy, as well as many of the adventures the family underwent during a time with huge adjustment. After many adventures, Gopnik broke down into Darwinism, biological evidence, and evolution theories about human nature, dogs specifically. While Gopnik started by grabbing the reader’s attention, Kingsolver began with a story evolving into the realization of animal territorial diversity when compared to humans. After the realization, Kingsolver provided evidence to many different evolution beliefs, and reasons as to why animals perform the way they do. Structurally, Kingsolver seemed to remain on the same topic as the original problem, whereas, Gopnik strays from the original story, creating ideas of dog evolution. Kingsolver structurally arranged the paper straight forward, to the point, while Gopnik deterred from the original thoughts many times, but still appropriately resolved all ideas and thoughts.

In conclusion, the many different features that both writers used in their papers developed insightful, clear, and meaningful essays. The main similarity, comparisons made in both essays, by use of metaphors and similes created vivid images, as well as understanding, of the exact message the writer was trying to pursue. Although both writers provided the essays with comparisons, the setup, or structure of each essay was of utmost difference.